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毕业设计说明书-CA6140机床后托架加工工艺及夹具设计

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In or der to e nsur e normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healt hy growt h, ensuri ng that nati onal (pr operty) is not l ost, to prevent or mi nimize the occurr ence of safety accide nts, foll ow the " prevent, res cue each ot her, e ns ure safety and reduce l oss es" princi ple, a ccor ding t o the l ocal conditi ons, make t he m anageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, s chool s ecurity under the leader shi p of Presi dent security work lea ding gr oup. The hea d teacher to t he leadershi p team is res ponsi ble for, implementati on of the accounta bility system. 2, school mont hly student knowle dge about safety education, educati on s hould be diversified i n the form every safety educati on f or students of classe s per week s hould be targeted. To carry on emergency iss ues deali ng with e ducation in G eneral, self -help a nd mut ual res cue k nowledge. Emerge ncy calls (s uch as 11 0, 119, 12 2, 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he esta bli s hment of major a ccide nt reporti ng system. S chool st ude nts report major acci de nt within a n hour of education; student r un a nd di sap pearances to re port ; report of the accide nt to a written re port in tri plicate, a corre ctional ce ntre, a police station, a townshi p pe ople' s Gover nment s hall not conceal the a cci dent. 4 week, tea chers ar e on duty system, esta blis h and i mprove the lea ders hip value s; stre ngthe n the educati on, ma nagement of tea chi ng activities i n schools to e ns ure normal teachi ng or der; res ponsi ble f or s chool safety leadershi p always maintai ned close contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety and help. 5 , strengtheni ng teachers ' moral educati on, esta blis h a de dicate d love, impr oving e ducati on qualit y, observe t he students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time and take preventive mea sures , no cor poral puni shme nt and covert corporal puni shment on st ude nts, stude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or department s use student Street pr opaganda or partici pate in the cele brations, as well a s parti cipating i n other s ocial w ork, without a ppr oval of the Correcti onal Centre, school principal s cons ent, wit hout organizati on. Wit hout the a pproval of relevant de partments, may organi ze student s to parti cipate in fire fighting , disa ster relief and so on. 7, schools s hould e ducate students to obey t he school rule s and regulati ons, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents. 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a reg ular ba sis, found hidden i n time, and in s evere cas es, it is hard to elimi nate immediately cl ose d, and reported to the l oca l pe ople' s Gover nment, e ducation, and rule of law s ecti on. 9 , the s chool s hould a lways check t he inter nal walls, retai ning wall s, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Window s, stairca ses a nd a variety of s ports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, i nfrastruct ure se curit y, u nsafe facility to immediately repair and demoliti on to ens ure that teachers a nd st ude nts work, learn, live ve nue s and facilities ar e safe and reli able . Song Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems to e nha nce fire safety, prote ction of public property and t he life and property safety of teacher s and students, school fire safety into day-to-day ma nagement, is devel opi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety educati on of the whole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fire S ervices A ct, so t hat everyone has of keeping fire control safety, pr otecting fire control facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

河南工业职业技术学院
CA6140 车床后托架 加工工艺及夹具设计

姓 名: 马 召 学 号: 院 (系) : 机械工程系 专 业: 机械设计与制造 指导教师: 贾社春

2011/11/20

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, maintena nce, and se curity. 9, do not use an ope n flame in the classr oom, prohibit burni ng stove, lit candles , mos quito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, and ba nni ng messy wiri ng. Without using a ny house hol d applia nce s is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus faculty members , must lea d by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 11, household use of gas in s chools, t o master proper usage, pay attenti on t o the leak -proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after use to e ns ure se curity. 12, dini ng room m ust be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cante en w orkers must be certified, strictly by operati on operation, gas tank a nd stove safety dista nce of 1.5 meters, to prevent a cci dents . 13, t he advers e conse quences ca use d by ignoring fire safety regulati ons, will be puni she d, until investigate d for legal responsibility. S ong Li n Xi ang Liu Jia pi ng elementary school March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia ping el ementary 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 teachers and stude nts, the surrounding area of the s chool gover nan ce covers personal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts and other aspects, i ntegrated gover nance s hall obtain wi de s upport and full cooperation of the communit y. On the surrounding e nvironme nt in s chool s shoul d be closely monit ored. 2, school w ork at t he same time, s hould pay atte ntion t o the safety manageme nt of school envir onment, shoul d take the initiative t o cont act the distri ct poli ce stati on, the village Committee, Corre ctional Ce ntre, Townshi p government, busine ss manageme nt and other departme nts to do a good j ob management. 3, tea cher on duty wit h the exce ption of ins pe ctions in s chool s, s hould als o pay attent i on to e nvironmental inspe ctions near the campus, found that t he jobles s migrants from rural areas, for example , haras sment of stude nts and a variety of accide nts, accor ding to different situati ons re porte d school official s or the poli ce station in a timely manner, to protect t he safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before school, tea cher s remind students , pay attenti on t o traffic safety. 5, s ho uld e ducate stude nts to re spe ct s ocial ethics, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintai ning public orde r, a nd fight t he ba d g uys, a nd gras p the correct way s and means of maintai ning and im proving students ' self -care a bility. 6, the establishme nt of emerge ncy res cue teams of tea cher s in schools, on high alert and depl oyed. Song Li n Xia ng Liu Jia ping elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and st ude nts orga nizations out of safety management system organizati on a ctivit ies betwee n teachers and students , to draw up a preci se plan a nd security meas ures must be signe d by the school officials to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Correcti onal Ce nter agreed to impl ement. Organizati on t o the fiel d relatively fa r or activitie s require a pproval by the De puty Dir ector of the E ducation Bureau in charge of se curity. 2, e ach activity shoul d hav e a specifi c responsi bility, pay attention to the pers ons age , physi cal match. Route 3, a ctivities, l ocati on, field surveys shoul d be carried out in a dvance. 4, a ctivities for the mea ns of trans port s hould ex plain t he situati on to t he s chool to comply wit h vehi cle, safety requirements , before the line for repair s. 5, e ach a ctivity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, picnic to pay attenti on t o fire prevention, food pois oni ng, preve ntion of fall accidents 7, t he act ivitie s near t he rivers, reserv oirs, no meas ures or do not meet the se curity re quireme nts of the Organizati on and not let students i nto the water









在生产过程中,使生产对象(原材料,毛坯,零件或总成等)的质和量的状 态发生直接变化的过程叫工艺过程,如毛坯制造,机械加工,热处理,装配等都 称之为工艺过程。在制定工艺过程中,要确定各工序的安装工位和该工序需要的 工步,加工该工序的机车及机床的进给量,切削深度,主轴转速和切削速度,该 工序的夹具,刀具及量具,还有走刀次数和走刀长度,最后计算该工序的基本时 间,辅助时间和工作地服务时间。 关键词 工序,工艺,工步,加工余量,定位方案,夹紧力

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摘 要 ........................................................................................................................... 1 CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺.................................................................................
1.1 CA6140 机床后托架的工艺分析 ................................................................................. 1.2 CA6140 机床后托架的工艺要求及工艺分析 ............................................................... 1.2.1 CA6140 机床`后托架的技术要求 ........................................................................ 1.3 加工工艺过程 .......................................................................................................... 1.4 确定各表面加工方案 ................................................................................................ 1.4.1 在选择各表面及孔的加工方法时,要综合考虑以下因素 .................................... 1.4.2 *面的加工....................................................................................................... 1.4.3 孔的加工方案 .................................................................................................... 1.5 确定定位基准 .......................................................................................................... 1.5.1 粗基准的选择 ................................................................................................... 1.5.2 精基准选择的原则 ............................................................................................ 1.6 工艺路线的拟订 ....................................................................................................... 1.6.1 工序的合理组合 ................................................................................................ 1.6.2 工序的集中与分散 ............................................................................................ 1.6.3 加工阶段的划分................................................................................................ 1.6.4 加工工艺路线方案的比较 ................................................................................. 1.7 CA6140 机床后托架的偏差,加工余量,工序尺寸及毛坯尺寸的确定 ........................ 1.7.1 毛坯的结构工艺要求 ........................................................................................ 1.7.2 CA6140 机床后托架的偏差计算.......................................................................... 1.8 确定切削用量及基本工时(机动时间).................................................................... 1.8.1 工序 1:粗、精铣底面 ...................................................................................... 1.8.2 工序 2 粗、半精、精镗 CA6140 侧面三杠孔..................................................... 1.8.3 工序 3:钻顶面四孔 ......................................................................................... 1.8.4 工序 4:钻侧面两孔 ......................................................................................... 1.9 时间定额计算及生产安排 ......................................................................................... 1.9.1 粗、精铣底面 ................................................................................................... 1.9.2 镗侧面三杠孔 ................................................................................................... 1.9.3 钻顶面四孔.......................................................................................................

2 专用夹具设计 ...........................................................................................................
2.1 铣*面夹具设计 ....................................................................................................... 2.1.1 研究原始质料 ................................................................................................... 2.1.2 定位基准的选择................................................................................................ 2.1.3 切削力及夹紧分析计算 ..................................................................................... 2.1.4 误差分析与计算................................................................................................ 2.1.5 夹具设计及操作的简要说明 .............................................................................. 2.2 镗孔夹具设计 .......................................................................................................... 2.2.1 研究原始质料 ................................................................................................... 2.2.2 定位基准的选择................................................................................................ 2.2.3 切削力及夹紧力的计算 ..................................................................................... 2.2.4 误差分析与计算................................................................................................ 2.3 钻顶面四孔夹具设计 ................................................................................................ 2.3.1 研究原始质料 ................................................................................................... 2.3.2 定位基准的选择................................................................................................ 2.3.3 切削力及夹紧力的计算 .....................................................................................

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

2.3.4 误差分析与计算................................................................................................ 2.3.5 夹具设计及操作的简要说明 ..............................................................................

结 论 ............................................................................................................................. 参考文献 .........................................................................................................................

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

1 CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺 1.1 CA6140 机床后托架的工艺分析
CA6140 机床后托架的是 CA6140 机床的一个重要零件, 因为其零件尺寸较小, 结构形状也不是很复杂, 但侧面三杠孔和底面的精度要求较高,此外还有顶面的 四孔要求加工, 但是对精度要求不是很高。后托架上的底面和侧面三杠孔的粗糙 度要求都是 Ra1.6 ,所以都要求精加工。其三杠孔的中心线和底*面有*面度的 公差要求等。因为其尺寸精度、几何形状精度和相互位置精度,以及各表面的表 面质量均影响机器或部件的装配质量,进而影响其性能与工作寿命,因此它的加 工是非常关键和重要的。

1.2 CA6140 机床后托架的工艺要求及工艺分析

锪*

图 1.1 CA6140 机床后托架零件图

一个好的结构不但要应该达到设计要求,而且要有好的机械加工工艺性,也 就是要有加工的可能性,要便于加工,要能够保证加工质量,同时使加工的劳动 量最小。而设计和工艺是密切相关的,又是相辅相成的。设计者要考虑加工工艺 问题。工艺师要考虑如何从工艺上保证设计的要求。

1.2.1 CA6140 机床后托架的技术要求
其加工有三组加工。底面、侧面三孔、顶面的四个孔、以及左视图上的两个 孔。 ⑴.以底面为主要加工的表面,有底面的铣加工,其底面的粗糙度要求是 Ra ? 1.6 ,*面度公差要求是 0.03。

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

0.03 0.02 0.025 ⑵.另一组加工是侧面的三孔,分别为 ? 25.50 ,? 300 , ? 400 ,其表面 粗糙度要求 Ra ? 1.6 要求的精度等级分别是 IT ? 8 , IT ? 7 , IT ? 7 。 ⑶.以顶面为住加工面的四个孔,分别是以 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ? 20 为一组的阶梯

空,这组孔的表面粗糙度要求是 Rz 50 , Ra ? 6.3 ,以及以 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ?10 的阶 梯孔,其中 2 ? ?10 是装配铰孔,其中 2 ? ?13 孔的表面粗糙度要求是 Rz 50 ,
Ra ? 6.3 , 2 ? ?10 是装配铰孔的表面粗糙度的要求是 Ra ? 6.3 。

⑷.CA6140 机床后托架毛坯的选择金属行浇铸,因为生产率很高,所以可 以免去每次造型。 单边余量一般在 1 ~ 3mm ,结构细密,能承受较大的压力,占用生产的面积 较小。因为 CA6140 机床后托架的重量只有 3.05kg,而年产量是 5000 件,由[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.1-3 可知是中批量生产

1.3 加工工艺过程
由以上分析可知。该箱体零件的主要加工表面是*面及孔系。一般来说,保 证*面的加工精度要比保证孔系的加工精度容易。因此,对于 CA6140 机床后托 架来说, 加工过程中的主要问题是保证孔的尺寸精度及位置精度,处理好孔和* 面之间的相互关系。 由上面的一些技术条件分析得知:CA6140 后托架的尺寸精度,形状机关度 以及位置机精度要求都很高,就给加工带来了困难,必须重视。

1.4 确定各表面加工方案
一个好的结构不但应该达到设计要求,而且要有好的机械加工工艺性,也就 是要有加工的可能性,要便于加工,要能保证加工的质量,同时是加工的劳动量 最小。设计和工艺是密切相关的,又是相辅相成的。对于我们设计 CA6140 机床 后托架的加工工艺来说,应选择能够满足孔系加工精度要求的加工方法及设备。 除了从加工精度和加工效率两方面考虑以外,也要适当考虑经济因素。在满足精 度要求及生产率的条件下,应选择价格较底的机床。

1.4.1 在选择各表面及孔的加工方法时,要综合考虑以下因素
⑴.要考虑加工表面的精度和表面质量要求,根据各加工表面的技术要求, 选择加工方法及分几次加工。 ⑵.根据生产类型选择,在大批量生产中可专用的高效率的设备。在单件小 批量生产中则常用通用设备和一般的加工方法。如、柴油机连杆小头孔的加工, 在 小批量生产时,采用钻、扩、铰加工方法;而在大批量生产时采用拉削加工。 ⑶.要考虑被加工材料的性质,例如,淬火钢必须采用磨削或电加工;而有 色金属由于磨削时容易堵塞砂轮,一般都采用精细车削,高速精铣等。 ⑷. 要考虑工厂或车间的实际情况,同时也应考虑不断改进现有加工方法和 设备,推广新技术,提高工艺水*。 ⑸.此外,还要考虑一些其它因素,如加工表面物理机械性能的特殊要求, 工件形状和重量等。 选择加工方法一般先按这个零件主要表面的技术要求选定最终加工方法。 再 选择前面各工序的加工方法,如加工某一轴的主要外圆面,要求公差为 IT6,表

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

面粗糙度为 Ra0.63μ m,并要求淬硬时,其最终工序选用精度,前面准备工
序可为粗车——半精车——淬火——粗磨。

1.4.2 *面的加工
由参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.1-12 可以确定,底面的加工方案 为底*面:粗铣——精铣( IT 7 ? IT 9 ) ,粗糙度为 6.3~0.8,一般不淬硬的*面, 精铣的粗糙度可以较小。

1.4.3 孔的加工方案
⑴.由参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.1-11 确定,以为孔的表面粗 0.03 0.02 0.025 糙度为 1.6,则选侧孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 , ? 400 )的加工顺序为:粗镗—— 精镗。 ⑵.而顶面的四个孔采取的加工方法分别是: 因为孔的表面粗糙度的要求都不高,是 Rz 50 ,所以我们采用一次钻孔的加工方 法,2 ? ?13 的孔选择的加工方法是钻, 因为 2 ? ? 20 的孔和 2 ? ?13 是一组阶梯孔, 所以可以在已经钻了 2 ? ?13 的孔基础上再锪孔钻锪到 2 ? ? 20 ,而另一组 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ?10 也是一组阶梯的孔,不同的是 2 ? ?10 的孔是锥孔,起表面粗糙度的要 求是 Ra ? 1.6 ,所以全加工的方法是钻——扩——铰。

1.5 确定定位基准
1.5.1 粗基准的选择
选择粗基准时, 考虑的重点是如何保证各加工表面有足够的余量,使不加工 表面与加工表面间的尺寸、位子符合图纸要求。 粗基准选择应当满足以下要求: ⑴.粗基准的选择应以加工表面为粗基准。目的是为了保证加工面与不加工 面的相互位置关系精度。 如果工件上表面上有好几个不需加工的表面,则应选择 其中与加工表面的相互位置精度要求较高的表面作为粗基准。以求壁厚均匀、外 形对称、少装夹等。 ⑵.选择加工余量要求均匀的重要表面作为粗基准。例如:机床床身导轨面 是其余量要求均匀的重要表面。 因而在加工时选择导轨面作为粗基准,加工床身 的底面, 再以底面作为精基准加工导轨面。 这样就能保证均匀地去掉较少的余量, 使表层保留而细致的组织,以增加耐磨性。 ⑶. 应选择加工余量最小的表面作为粗基准。这样可以保证该面有足够的加 工余量。 ⑷.应尽可能选择*整、光洁、面积足够大的表面作为粗基准,以保证定位 准确夹紧可靠。有浇口、冒口、飞边、毛刺的表面不宜选作粗基准,必要时需经 初加工。 ⑸.粗基准应避免重复使用,因为粗基准的表面大多数是粗糙不规则的。多 次使用难以保证表面间的位置精度。 要从保证孔与孔、孔与*面、*面与*面之间的位置,能保证 CA6140 机床 后托架在整个加工过程中基本上都能用统一的基准定位。从 CA6140 机床后托架 零件图分析可知,选择侧面三孔作为 CA6140 机床后托架加工粗基准。

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

1.5.2 精基准选择的原则
⑴.基准重合原则。即尽可能选择设计基准作为定位基准。这样可以避免定 位基准与设计基准不重合而引起的基准不重合误差。 ⑵.基准统一原则,应尽可能选用统一的定位基准。基准的统一有利于保证 各表面间的位置精度, 避免基准转换所带来的误差,并且各工序所采用的夹具比 较统一,从而可减少夹具设计和制造工作。例如:轴类零件常用顶针孔作为定位 基准。车削、磨削都以顶针孔定位,这样不但在一次装夹中能加工大多书表面, 而且保证了各外圆表面的同轴度及端面与轴心线的垂直度。 ⑶.互为基准的原则。选择精基准时,有时两个被加工面,可以互为基准反 复加工。例如:对淬火后的齿轮磨齿,是以齿面为基准磨内孔,再以孔为基准磨 齿面,这样能保证齿面余量均匀。 自为基准原则。 有些精加工或光整加工工序要求余量小而均匀,可以选择加工表 面本身为基准。例如:磨削机床导轨面时,是以导轨面找正定位的。此外,像拉 孔在无心磨床上磨外圆等,都是自为基准的例子。 此外,还应选择工件上精度高。尺寸较大的表面为精基准,以保证定位稳固 可靠。并考虑工件装夹和加工方便、夹具设计简单等。 要从保证孔与孔、孔与*面、*面与*面之间的位置,能保证 CA6140 机床 后托架在整个加工过程中基本上都能用统一的基准定位。从 CA6140 机床后托架 零件图分析可知, 它的底*面与侧面三孔*行而且占有的面积较大,适于作精基 准使用。 但用一个*面定位仅仅能限制工件的三个自由度,如果使用典型的一面 两孔定位方法,则可以满足整个加工过程中基本上都采用统一的基准定位的要 求。 至于两侧面, 因为是非加工表面, 所以也可以用与顶*面的四孔的加工基准。 选择精基准的原则时,考虑的重点是有利于保证工件的加工精度并使装夹准。

1.6 工艺路线的拟订
对于大批量生产的零件,一般总是首先加工出统一的基准。CA6140 机床后 托架的加工的第一个工序也就是加工统一的基准。具体安排是先以孔定位粗、精 加工顶*面。 后续工序安排应当遵循粗精分开和先面后孔的原则。

1.6.1 工序的合理组合
确定加工方法以后,就按生产类型、零件的结构特点、技术要求和机床设备 等具体生产条件确定工艺过程的工序数。确定工序数的基本原则: ⑴.工序分散原则 工序内容简单,有利选择最合理的切削用量。便于采用通用设备。简单的机 床工艺装备。生产准备工作量少,产品更换容易。对工人的技术要求水*不高。 但需要设备和工人数量多,生产面积大,工艺路线长,生产管理复杂。 ⑵.工序集中原则 工序数目少,工件装,夹次数少,缩短了工艺路线,相应减少了操作工人数 和生产面积, 也简化了生产管理,在一次装夹中同时加工数个表面易于保证这些 表面间的相互位置精度。使用设备少,大量生产可采用高效率的专用机床,以提 高生产率。但采用复杂的专用设备和工艺装备,使成本增高,调整维修费事,生 产准备工作量大。

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

一般情况下,单件小批生产中,为简化生产管理,多将工序适当集中。但由 于不采用专用设备, 工序集中程序受到限制。结构简单的专用机床和工夹具组织 流水线生产。 加工工序完成以后,将工件清洗干净。清洗是在 80 ? 90?c 的含 0.4%—1.1% 苏打及 0.25%—0.5%亚硝酸钠溶液中进行的。清洗后用压缩空气吹干净。保证零 件内部杂质、铁屑、毛刺、砂粒等的残留量不大于 200m g 。

1.6.2 工序的集中与分散
制订工艺路线时, 应考虑工序的数目,采用工序集中或工序分散是其两个不 同的原则。 所谓工序集中, 就是以较少的工序完成零件的加工, 反之为工序分散。 ⑴.工序集中的特点 工序数目少,工件装,夹次数少,缩短了工艺路线,相应减少了操作工人数和生 产面积, 也简化了生产管理, 在一次装夹中同时加工数个表面易于保证这些表面 间的相互位置精度。使用设备少,大量生产可采用高效率的专用机床,以提高生 产率。但采用复杂的专用设备和工艺装备,使成本增高,调整维修费事,生产准 备工作量大。 ⑵.工序分散的特点 工序内容简单,有利选择最合理的切削用量。便于采用通用设备。简单的机 床工艺装备。生产准备工作量少,产品更换容易。对工人的技术要求水*不高。 但需要设备和工人数量多,生产面积大,工艺路线长,生产管理复杂。 工序集中与工序分散各有特点,必须根据生产类型。加工要求和工厂的具体 情况进行综合分析决定采用那一种原则。 一般情况下,单件小批生产中,为简化生产管理,多将工序适当集中。但由 于不采用专用设备, 工序集中程序受到限制。结构简单的专用机床和工夹具组织 流水线生产。 由于*代计算机控制机床及加工中心的出现,使得工序集中的优点更为突 出,即使在单件小批生产中仍可将工序集中而不致花费过多的生产准备工作量, 从而可取的良好的经济效果。

1.6.3 加工阶段的划分
零件的加工质量要求较高时,常把整个加工过程划分为几个阶段: ⑴.粗加工阶段 粗加工的目的是切去绝大部分多雨的金属,为以后的精加工创造较好的条 件,并为半精加工,精加工提供定位基准,粗加工时能及早发现毛坯的缺陷,予 以报废或修补,以免浪费工时。 粗加工可采用功率大,刚性好,精度低的机床,选用大的切前用量,以提高 生产率、粗加工时,切削力大,切削热量多,所需夹紧力大,使得工件产生的内 应力和变形大,所以加工精度低,粗糙度值大。一般粗加工的公差等级为 IT11~IT12。粗糙度为 Ra80~100μ m。 ⑵.半精加工阶段 半精加工阶段是完成一些次要面的加工并为主要表面的精加工做好准备, 保 证合适的加工余量。半精加工的公差等级为 IT9~IT10。表面粗糙度为 Ra10~1.25 μ m。 ⑶.精加工阶段

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

精加工阶段切除剩余的少量加工余量,主要目的是保证零件的形状位置几精 度,尺寸精度及表面粗糙度 , 使各主要表面达到图纸要求 .另外精加工工序安排在 最后,可防止或减少工件精加工表面损伤。 精加工应采用高精度的机床小的切前用量,工序变形小,有利于提高加工精 度.精加工的加工精度一般为 IT6~IT7,表面粗糙度为 Ra10~1.25μ m。 ⑷.光整加工阶段 对某些要求特别高的需进行光整加工,主要用于改善表面质量,对尺度精度 改善很少。一般不能纠正各表面相互位置误差,其精度等级一般为 IT5~IT6,表面 粗糙度为 Ra1.25~0.32μ m。 此外,加工阶段划分后,还便于合理的安排热处理工序。由于热处理性质的 不同,有的需安排于粗加工之前,有的需插入粗精加工之间。 但须指出加工阶段的划分并不是绝对的。在实际生活中,对于刚性好,精度 要求不高或批量小的工件,以及运输装夹费事的重型零件往往不严格划分阶段, 在满足加工质量要求的前提下,通常只分为粗、精加工两个阶段,甚至不把粗精 加工分开。 必须明确划分阶段是指整个加工过程而言的,不能以某一表面的加工 或某一工序的性质区分。 例如工序的定位精基准面,在粗加工阶段就要加工的很 准确,而在精加工阶段可以安排钻小空之类的粗加工。

1.6.4 加工工艺路线方案的比较
在保证零件尺寸公差、 形位公差及表面粗糙度等技术条件下,成批量生 产可以考虑采用专用机床,以便提高生产率。但同时考虑到经济效果,降低生产 成本,拟订两个加工工艺路线方案。见下表:
表 1.1 加工工艺路线方案比较表

工序 方案Ⅰ 号 工序内容 010 粗铣底*面 A 020 040 050 060 070 080 090 110 精铣底* A 粗 钻、扩孔: ? 40 ? 30.2 、 ? 25.5

方案Ⅱ 定位基准 侧面和外 圆 侧面和外 圆 工序内容 粗、精铣底*面 A 粗镗孔: ? 40 ? 30.2 、 ? 25.5 定位基准 侧面和外 圆 底面和侧 面 底面和侧 面 底面和侧 面 底面和侧 面 底 面 底 面 底 面 底 面 面和侧 面和侧 面和侧 面和侧

底 面 和 侧 半 精 镗 孔 : ? 40 、 面 ? 30.2 、 ? 25.5 ? 40 、 ? 30.2 、 底 面 和 侧 精镗孔:? 40 、? 30.2 、 粗铰孔: 面 ? 25.5 ? 25.5

? 40 、 ? 30.2 、 侧 面 精铰孔: 孔 ? 25.5 粗铣油槽 底面 面 底面 锪钻孔: ? 42 面 底面 钻: ?10 、 ?13 面 底面 扩孔 ?13 面

和 两 粗铣油槽 和 侧 钻: ?10 、 ?13 和 侧 扩孔 ?13 和 侧 精铰锥孔: ?10 和 侧 锪钻孔: ?10 、 ?13

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

120 130 140 150

精铰锥孔: ?10 锪钻孔: ?10 、 ?13 钻: M 6 、 ? 6 攻螺纹 M 6

底面和 面 底面和 面 底面和 ? 25.5 底面和 ? 25.5

侧 去毛刺 侧 钻: M 6 、 ? 6 孔 攻螺纹 M 6 孔 锪*面 底面和孔 ? 25.5 底面和孔 ? 25.5

160 160 170

锪*面 倒角去毛刺 检验

倒角去毛刺 检验

加工工艺路线方案的论证: ⑴.方案Ⅱ在 120 工序中按排倒角去毛刺,这不仅避免划伤工人的手,而且 给以后的定位及装配得到可靠的保证。 ⑵. 方案Ⅱ在 010 工序中先安排铣底*面,主要是因为底*面是以后工序的 主要定位面之一,为提高定位精度。 ⑶.方案Ⅱ符合粗精加工分开原则。 由以上分析:方案Ⅱ为合理、经济的加工工艺路线方案。具体的工艺过程如 下表:
表 1.2 加工工艺过程表

工序号 010

工 种 铸造

工作内容 金属型铸造

说 明 铸件毛坯尺寸: 220 mm 宽: 60 mm 高: 长: 70 mm 孔: ? 21.5 、 ? 26.2 、 ? 36 石墨化退火, 来消除铸铁表 层和壁厚较薄的部位可能 出现的白口组织 (有大量的 渗碳体出现) ,以便于切削 加工 工件用专用夹具装夹; 立式 铣床 ( X 52K ) 工件用专用夹具装夹; 立式 铣镗床( T 68 )

020 030

清砂 热处理

除去浇冒口,锋边及型砂 退火

040 050 060 070

检验 铣 粗镗 铣

检验毛坯 粗铣、精铣底*面 A 粗镗镗孔: .03 0.02 0.025 ? 25.50 0 , ? 300 , ? 400 粗铣油槽

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

080

半精镗

半精镗镗孔: .03 0.02 0.025 ? 25.50 0 , ? 300 , ? 400 精镗镗孔: .03 0.02 0.025 ? 25.50 0 , ? 300 , ? 400
2 ? ?10 、 2 ? ? 20 将孔 2 ? ?13 、 钻到直径 d ? 10 mm 将 2 ? ?13 扩孔到要求尺寸

工件用专用夹具装夹; 立式 T 68 铣镗床( ) 工件用专用夹具装夹; 立式 T 68 铣镗床( )

090 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190

精镗 钻 扩孔钻 锪孔钻 铰 钳 钻 攻丝 钳 检验 入库

锪孔 ?13 、 2 ? ? 20 到要求尺寸 精铰锥孔 2 ? ?10 去毛刺 钻孔 M 6 、 ? 6 攻螺纹 M 6 倒角去毛刺

工件用专用夹具装夹; 摇臂 ) 钻床 ( Z 3025

工件用专用夹具装夹; 摇臂 ) 钻床 ( Z 3025

清洗,涂防锈油

1.7 CA6140 机床后托架的偏差,加工余量,工序尺寸及毛坯尺 寸的确定
CA6140 机床后托架的铸造采用的是铸铁制造,其材料是 HT150,硬度 HB 为 150-200,生产类型为中批量生产,采用铸造毛坯。

1.7.1 毛坯的结构工艺要求
⑴.CA6140 车床后托架为铸造件,对毛坯的结构工艺有一定要求: ①、铸件的壁厚应和合适,均匀,不得有突然变化。 ②、铸造圆角要适当,不得有尖角。 ③、 铸件结构要尽量简化, 并要有和合理的起模斜度, 以减少分型面、 芯子、 并便于起模。 ④、加强肋的厚度和分布要合理,以免冷却时铸件变形或产生裂纹。 ⑤、铸件的选材要合理,应有较好的可铸性。 毛坯形状、尺寸确定的要求 ⑵.设计毛坯形状、尺寸还应考虑到: ①、各加工面的几何形状应尽量简单。 ②、工艺基准以设计基准相一致。 ③、便于装夹、加工和检查。 ④、结构要素统一,尽量使用普通设备和标准刀具进行加工。 在确定毛坯时,要考虑经济性。虽然毛坯的形状尺寸与零件接*,可以减少 加工余量,提高材料的利用率,降低加工成本,但这样可能导致毛坯制造困难, 需要采用昂贵的毛坯制造设备,增加毛坯的制造成本。因此,毛坯的种类形状及 尺寸的确定一定要考虑零件成本的问题但要保证零件的使用性能。 在毛坯的种类 形状及尺寸确定后,必要时可据此绘出毛坯图。

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

1.7.2 CA6140 机床后托架的偏差计算
⑴.底*面的偏差及加工余量计算 底*面加工余粮的计算,计算底*面与孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 , ? 400 )的 中心线的尺寸为 35 ? 0.07 。根据工序要求,顶面加工分粗、精铣加工。各工步余 量如下: 粗铣:由参考文献[5]《机械加工工艺手册第 1 卷》表 3.2-23。其余量值规定 2 . 7 ~ 3.4mm ,现取 3.0mm 。表 3.2-27 粗铣*面时厚度偏差取 ? 0.28mm 。 为 精铣: 由参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-59, 其余量值规定为 1.5mm 。 铸造毛坯的基本尺寸为 35 ? 3.0 ? 1.0 ? 39 ,又根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工 艺手册》表 2.3-11,铸件尺寸公差等级选用 CT7,再查表 2.3-9 可得铸件尺寸公差 为 1.1mm 。 毛坯的名义尺寸为: 35 ? 3.0 ? 1.0 ? 39 毛坯最小尺寸为: 39 ? 0.55 ? 38.45mm 毛坯最大尺寸为: 39 ? 0.55 ? 39.55mm 粗铣后最大尺寸为: 35 ? 1.0 ? 36 mm 粗铣后最小尺寸为: 36 ? 0.28 ? 35.72 mm
0.03 0.02 0.025

精铣后尺寸与零件图尺寸相同,即与侧面三孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 ,
0.03 0.02 .025 ? 400 0 )的中心线的尺寸为 35 ? 0.07 。

⑵.正视图上的三孔的偏差及加工余量计算 参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-59 和参考文献[15]《互换性与 技术测量》表 1-8,可以查得: 0.03 孔 ? 25.50 : 粗镗的精度等级: IT ? 12 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 15um ,尺寸偏差是 0.21mm 半精镗的精度等级:IT ? 10 , 表面粗糙度 Ra ? 2.5um , 尺寸偏差是 0.084 mm 精镗的精度等级: IT ? 7 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 1.6um ,尺寸偏差是 0.021mm 0.02 孔 ? 30.2 0 粗镗的精度等级: IT ? 12 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 15um ,尺寸偏差是 0.21mm 半精镗的精度等级:IT ? 10 , 表面粗糙度 Ra ? 2.5um , 尺寸偏差是 0.084 mm 精镗的精度等级: IT ? 7 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 1.6um ,尺寸偏差是 0.021mm 0.025 孔 ? 40.20 粗镗的精度等级: IT ? 12 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 15um ,尺寸偏差是 0.25mm 半精镗的精度等级: IT ? 10 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 2.5um ,尺寸偏差是 0.1mm 精镗的精度等级: IT ? 7 ,表面粗糙度 Ra ? 1.6um ,尺寸偏差是 0.025 根据工序要求,侧面三孔的加工分为粗镗、半精镗、精镗三个工序完成,各 工序余量如下: 0.03 粗镗: ? 25.50 孔,参照[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-48,其余量值为 2 mm ;
.02 ? 30.2 0 0 孔,参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-48,其余量值为 2 mm ; .025 ? 400 0 孔,参照[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-48,其余量值为 2 mm 。

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

半精镗: ? 25.50 孔, 参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-48,其余量值为 1.2mm ; .02 ? 30.2 0 0 孔, 参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-48,其余量值为 1.2mm ;
0.03 .025 ? 400 0 孔, 参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-48,其余量值为 1.2mm 。 .03 ? 25.50 0 孔, 参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-48,其余量值为 0.8mm ; .02 ? 30.2 0 0 孔, 参照[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.3-48,其余量值为 0.8mm ;

精镗:

.025 ? 400 0 孔,参照[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-48,其余量值为 0.8mm 。

铸件毛坯的基本尺寸分别为: .03 ? 25.50 0 孔毛坯基本尺寸为 ? : 25 .5 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? 21 .5mm ;

?80?0.013 孔毛坯基本尺寸为 ? : 30.2 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? 26.2mm ;

?100?0.035 孔毛坯基本尺寸为 ? : 40 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? 36mm 。
根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-11,铸件尺寸公差等级选用 0.9mm 、 0.9mm 。 CT7,再查表 2.3-9 可得铸件尺寸公差分别为: 0.9mm 、 .03 ? 25.50 0 孔毛坯名义尺寸为 ? : 25 .5 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? 21 .5mm ; 毛坯最大尺寸为 ? : 21.5 ? 0.45 ? 21.95mm ; 毛坯最小尺寸为 ? : 21.5 ? 0.45 ? 21.05mm ; 粗镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 21.50 0.084 半精镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 24.7 0
0.21

0.025 0.021 精镗后尺寸是 ? 25.50 ,已达到零件图尺寸要求 ? 25.50 .02 ? 30.2 0 0 孔毛坯名义尺寸为 ? : 30 .2 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? 26 .2mm ;

毛坯最大尺寸为 ? : 26.2 ? 0.45 ? 26.65mm ; 毛坯最小尺寸为 ? : 26.2 ? 0.45 ? 25.75mm ; 粗镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 28.2 0 ; 0.084 半精镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 29.40
0.21 0.02 精镗后尺寸与零件图尺寸相同,即 ? : ? 30.2 0 .025 ? 400 0 孔毛坯名义尺寸为 ? : 40 ? 2 ? 1.2 ? 0.8 ? ? 36mm;

毛坯最大尺寸为 ? : 36 ? 0.45 ? 36.45mm ; 毛坯最小尺寸为 ? : 36 ? 0.45 ? 35.55 mm ; 粗镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 380 0.10 半精镗工序尺寸为 ? : ? 39.2 0
0.25

精镗后尺寸与零件图尺寸相同,即 ? 400 ⑶.顶面两组孔 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ? 20 ,以及另外一组 2 ? ?10 的锥孔和 2 ? ?13
0.025

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

毛坯为实心,不冲孔。两孔精度要求为 IT 1 ,表面粗糙度要求为 Rz 50 。参照 参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.3-47,表 2.3-48。确定工序尺寸及加工余 量为: 第一组: 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ? 20 加工该组孔的工艺是:钻——扩——锪 ?10 钻孔: 扩孔: 锪孔:

?13
? 20

2 Z ? 3mm 2Z ? 7 m m

(Z 为单边余量) (Z 为单边余量)

第二组: 2 ? ?10 的锥孔和 2 ? ?13 加工该组孔的工艺是:钻——锪——铰 ?10 钻孔: 锪孔: 铰孔:

?13

2 Z ? 4mm

?10

(Z 为单边余量)

1.8 确定切削用量及基本工时(机动时间)
1.8.1 工序 1:粗、精铣底面
机床:双立轴圆工作台铣床 X 52 K

W18 Cr 4V D ? 63mm 刀具: 硬质合金端铣刀 (面铣刀) 材料: 齿数 Z ? 6 ⑴.粗铣 a a ? 3mm 铣削深度 p : p a 每齿进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-73,取 a f ? 0.18mm/ Z 铣削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-81, 取 V ? 1.2m / s
机床主轴转速 n : 1000 V 1000? 1.2 ? 60 n? ? ? 363.97r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 63 ,n ? 370 r / min

式(1.1) 式(1.2) 式(1.3)

?d n 3.14 ? 63? 370 V? ? 0 ? ? 1.22m / s 1000 1000? 60 实际铣削速度 V ? : V V ? a f Zn ? 0.18? 6 ? 370/ 60 ? 6.66mm/ s 进给量 f : f f ? V f ? 6.66mm/ s ? 399.6mm/ min 工作台每分进给量 f m : m a? :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-81, a? ? 60mm
被切削层长度 l :由毛坯尺寸可知 l ? 76 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 :
l1 ? 0.5( D ? D 2 ? a?2 ) ? (1 ~ 3)

式(1.4)

? 0.5(63 ? 632 ? 602 ) ? (1 ~ 3) ? 24.98mm 取 l1 ? 25m m

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

刀具切出长度 l 2 :取 l 2 ? 2mm 走刀次数为 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 76 ? 25 ? 2 t j1 ? ? ? 0.26 min t fm 399.6 机动时间 j1 :

式(1.5)

⑵.精铣: a a ? 1.5mm 铣削深度 p : p a 每齿进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-73,取 a f ? 0.15mm/ Z 铣削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-81, 取 V ? 1.5m / s 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 1.5 ? 60 n? ? ? 454.96r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 63 , n ? 460 r / min 实际铣削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 进给量
V? ?

?d 0 n
1000

?

3.14 ? 63? 460 ? 1.52m / s 1000? 60

V ? a f Zn ? 0.15? 6 ? 460/ 60 ? 6.9mm/ s ,由式(1.3)有: f f ? V f ? 9mm/ s ? 414mm/ min 工作台每分进给量 f m : m 被切削层长度 l :由毛坯尺寸可知 l ? 76 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 :精铣时 l1 ? D ? 63mm Vf
刀具切出长度 l 2 :取 l 2 ? 2mm 走刀次数为 1。 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有: t ? t j1 ? t j 2 ? 0.26 ? 0.33 ? 0.59min 本工序机动时间 j 机床:卧式镗床 T 68 刀具:硬质合金镗刀,镗刀材料: YT 5 ?0.03 ⑴.粗镗 ? 25.5 孔
a ? 2mm a 切削深度 p : p ,毛坯孔径 d 0 ? 21.5mm。 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

t j2

t j2 ?

l ? l1 ? l 2 76 ? 63 ? 2 ? ? 0.33min fm 414

1.8.2 工序 2 粗、半精、精镗 CA6140 侧面三杠孔

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.35m m/ r 。 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66 取 V ? 0.35m / s ? 21m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 21 n? ? ? 311.06r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 21.5 ,取 n ? 300 r / min

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m : f m ? fn ? 0.35? 300 ? 105mm/ min

V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 21.5 ? 300 ? 0.34m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm ap 2 l1 ? ? (2 ~ 3) ? ? 2 ? 5.4mm tgk tg 30 ? l r 刀具切入长度 1 : 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有: ?0.02 mm孔 ⑵.粗镗 ? 30.2
t j1

式(1.7)

式 (1.6)

t j1 ?

l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 5.4 ? 4 ? ? 1 ? 0.66 min fm 105

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.45m m/ r 。 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.35m / s ? 21m / min 1000 V 1000? 21 n? ? ? 255.26r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 26.2 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 取 n ? 250 r / min
V? ?

a ? 2mm a 切削深度 p : p ,毛坯孔径 d 0 ? 26.2mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m , 由式 (1.7) 有:f m ? fn ? 0.45? 250 ? 112.5mm/ min

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 26.2 ? 250 ? 0.34m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 5.4 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.62 min t fm 112.5 机动时间 j1 ,由式(1.5)有:
?0.025

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

2 ? 2 ? 5.4mm tg 30?

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.5m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.4m / s ? 24 m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有:

⑶.粗镗 ? 40 孔 a ? 2mm a 切削深度 p : p ,毛坯孔径 d 0 ? 36mm。 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

n?

1000 V 1000? 24 ? ? 212.31r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 36 ,取 n ? 250 r / min

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m ,由式(1.7)有: f m ? fn ? 0.5 ? 250 ? 125mm/ min

V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 36 ? 250 ? 0.47m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 5.4 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.56 min t j1 f 125 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有:
?0.03

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

2 ? 2 ? 5.4mm tg 30?

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.35m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取: V ? 0.33m / s ? 19.8m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有 1000 V 1000? 19.8 n? ? ? 268.33r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 23.5 ,取 n ? 250 r / min
V? ?

⑷.半精镗 ? 25.5 孔 a ? 1.2mm a 切削深度 p : p ,粗镗后孔径 d 0 ? 23.5mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m , 由式 (1.7) 有: f m ? fn ? 0.35? 250 ? 87.5mm/ min

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 23.5 ? 250 ? 0.31m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 4 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.77 min t fm 87.5 机动时间 j1 ,由式(1.5)有:
?0.02

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

1.2 ? 2 ? 4mm tg 30?

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.35m m/ r

⑸.半精镗 ? 30.2 孔 a 切削深度 p : ,粗镗后孔径 d 0 ? 28.2mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取: V ? 0.34 m / s ? 20.4m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 20.4 n? ? ? 230.38r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 28.2 ,取 n ? 250 r / min
1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m , 由式 (1.7) 有: f m ? fn ? 0.35? 250 ? 87.5mm/ min V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 28.2 ? 250 ? 0.36m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 4 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.77 min t j1 f 87 . 5 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有:
?0.025

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

1.2 ? 2 ? 4mm tg 30?

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.42m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.4m / s ? 24 m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 24 n? ? ? 201.14r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 38 ,取 n ? 200 r / min
V? ?

⑹.半精镗 ? 40 孔 a ? 1.2mm a 切削深度 p : p ,粗镗后孔径 d 0 ? 38mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m ,由式(1.7)有: f m ? fn ? 0.42? 200 ? 84mm/ min

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 38 ? 200 ? 0.39m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 4 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.8 min t j1 f 84 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有:
⑺.精镗 ? 25.5 孔 a p a p ? 0.8mm 切削深度 : ,半精镗后孔径 d 0 ? 24.7mm
?0.03

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

1.2 ? 2 ? 4mm tg 30?

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度 取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.28m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.3m / s ? 18m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.2)有: 1000 V 1000? 18 n? ? ? 232.08r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 24.7 ,取 n ? 250 r / min
1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m ,由式(1.7)有: f m ? fn ? 0.28? 250 ? 70mm/ min V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 24.7 ? 250 ? 0.32m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 3.5 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.96 min t j1 f 70 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有:
?0.02

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

0.8 ? 2 ? 3.5mm tg 30?

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.3m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.34 m / s ? 20.4m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 20.4 n? ? ? 220.98r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 29.4 ,取 n ? 250 r / min
V? ?

⑻.精镗 ? 30.2 孔 a p a p ? 0.8mm 切削深度 : ,半精镗后孔径 d 0 ? 29.4mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m ,由式(1.7)有: f m ? fn ? 0.3 ? 250 ? 75mm/ min

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 29.4 ? 250 ? 0.38m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 3.5 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.9 min t j1 f 75 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有:
⑼.精镗 ? 40
?0.025

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

0.8 ? 2 ? 3.5mm tg 30?



In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

取 200 mm ,切削深度为 2 mm 。因此确定进给量 f ? 0.35m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,取 V ? 0.35m / s ? 21m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.2)有: 1000 V 1000? 21 n? ? ? 170.6r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 39.2 ,取 n ? 200 r / min
V? ?

a a ? 0.8mm 切削深度 p : p ,半精镗后孔径 d 0 ? 39.2mm 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-66,刀杆伸出长度

1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 工作台每分钟进给量 f m ,由式(1.7)有: f m ? fn ? 0.35? 200 ? 70mm/ min

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 29.2 ? 200 ? 0.31m / s 1000? 60

被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm

tgkr 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.6)有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 3 ~ 5mm 取 l 2 ? 4mm 行程次数 i : i ? 1 l ? l1 ? l 2 60 ? 3.5 ? 4 t j1 ? ? ? 1 ? 0.96 min t j1 f 70 m 机动时间 ,由式(1.7)有:

l1 ?

ap

? (2 ~ 3) ?

0.8 ? 2 ? 3.5mm tg 30?

t 本工序所用的机动时间 j : t j ? 0.66 ? 0.62 ? 0.56 ? 0.77 ? 0.77 ? 0.8 ? 0.96 ? 0.9 ? 0.96 ? 7 min

1.8.3 工序 3:钻顶面四孔

钻顶面四孔(其中包括钻孔 2 ? ?13 , 2 ? ?10 和扩孔 2 ? ?13 ,铰孔 2 ? ?10 , 以及锪孔 2 ? ? 20 , ?13 ) 机床: Z 3025 刀具:硬质合金锥柄麻花钻头。型号:E211 和 E101 带导柱直柄*底锪钻(GB4260-84) 公制/莫式 4 号锥直柄铰刀 刀具材料: W 18Cr 4V ⑴.钻孔 2 ? ?13 ,以及 2 ? ?10 的锥孔 钻孔 2 ? ?13 时先采取的是钻到 2 ? ?10 在扩到 2 ? ?13 ,所以 D ? 10 mm ,另外 的两个 2 ? ?10 锥孔也先钻到 2 ? ?10 。

a a ? 5mm 切削深度 p : p 进给量 f : 根据参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-52, 取 f ? 0.33m m/ r

切削速度 V : 参照参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-53, 取 V ? 0.36 m / s 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 v 1000 ? 0.36 ? 60 n? ? ? 687 .9r / min ?d 3.14 ? 10 ,取 n ? 700 r / min

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 :
l1 ?

V? ?

?d 0 n
1000

?

3.14 ? 10 ? 700 ? 0.36m / s 1000? 60

D 10 ctgk r ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg 120 ? ? 2 ? 4.8mm ? 5mm 2 2

式(1.8)

刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm 走刀次数为 1 L 18 ? 18 ? 67 ? 67 ? 4 ? 5 ? 4 ? 3 t j2 ? ? ? 0.87 min t j2 fn 0 . 33 ? 700 机动时间 : ⑵.扩孔 2 ? ?13

式 (1.9)

钻孔 2 ? ?13 时先采取的是钻到 2 ? ?10 再扩到 2 ? ?13 ,所以 D ? 13mm , d1 ? 10 a a ? 1.5mm 切削深度 p : p 进给量 f : 根据参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-52, 取 f ? 0.9m m/ r 切削速度 V : 参照参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-53, 取 V ? 0.37 m / s 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 v 1000 ? 0.37 ? 60 n? ? ? 543 .85r / min ?D 3.14 ? 13 ,取 n ? 550 r / min 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 60 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.8)有:
l1 ? V? ?

?d 0 n
1000

?

3.14 ? 13? 550 ? 0.37m / s 1000? 60

D ? d1 13 ? 10 ctgkr ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg120? ? 2 ? 2.86m m ? 3m m 2 2 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm

走刀次数为 1 机动时间 ,由式(1.9)有: 2 ? ⑶.锪孔 ? 20

t j2

t j2 ?

L 67 ? 18 ? 2 ? 3 ? 2 ? 3 ? ? 0.5 min fn 0.39 ? 550

a ? 3.5mm D ? 20mm a 切削深度 p : p , 根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4 ? 67 查得:进给量 f ? 0.1 ~ 0.15mm/ r ,切削速度 V ? 0.2 ~ 0.41m / s ;取 V ? 0.3m / s

机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000V 1000 ? 0.3 ? 60 n? ? ? 286 .62 r / min ?D 3.14 ? 20 ,取 n ? 300 r / min ?Dn 3.14 ? 20 ? 300 V? ? ? ? 0.31m / s 1000 1000 ? 60 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有:

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

被切削层长度 l : l ? 12 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.8)有:
D ? d0 20 ? 13 ctgkr ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg120? ? 2 ? 4.02m m 2 2 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm l1 ?

走刀次数为 2 t 机动时间 j 4 ,由式(1.5)有: l ? l1 ? l 2 12 ? 6 ? 2 ? 4.02 ? 2 ? 3 t j4 ? 2 ? ? ? 0.69 min nf 0.15? 300 ⑷.锪孔 ?13

a a ? 3mm D ? 13mm 切削深度 p : p , 根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4 ? 67 查得:进给量 f ? 0.1 ~ 0.15mm/ r ,切削速度 V ? 0.2 ~ 0.41m / s ;取 V ? 0.35m / s
机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000V 1000 ? 0.35 ? 60 n? ? ? 514 .45r / min ?D 3.14 ? 13 ,取 n ? 500 r / min ?Dn 3.14 ? 13 ? 500 V? ? ? ? 0.34 m / s 1000 1000 ? 60 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 40 mm 刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.8)有: D ? d0 13 ? 10 l1 ? ctgkr ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg120? ? 2 ? 2.87m m 2 2 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm 走刀次数为 1 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有: ⑸.铰孔 2 ? ?10
t j4 ? l ? l1 ? l 2 47 ? 2.87 ? 3 ? ? 0.7 min nf 0.15? 500

t j4

a a ? 0.25mm D ? 10 mm 切削深度 p : p , 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-58,
f ? 1.0 ~ 2.0m m/ r 取 f ? 2.0m m/ r

切削速度 V : 参照参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-60, 取 V ? 0.32 m / s 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000V 1000 ? 0.32 ? 60 n? ? ? 611 .46 r / min ?D 3.14 ? 10 ,取 n ? 600 r / min 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 20 mm
V? ?

?Dn
1000

?

3.14 ? 10 ? 600 ? 0.31m / s 1000 ? 60

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

刀具切入长度 l1 ,由式(1.8)有: D ? d0 10.5 ? 10 l1 ? ctgkr ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg120? ? 2 ? 2.14m m 2 2 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm 走刀次数为 1 机动时间
t j4 ? L 20 ? 6 ? 2 ? 2.14 ? 2 ? 3 ? ? 0.03min nf 2 ? 600

t j4

,由式(1.9)有:

1.8.4 工序 4:钻侧面两孔

6 的孔和 M 6 的螺纹孔) 钻侧面两孔(其中包括钻 ?  机床: 6 ⑴.钻 ? 

a a ? 3mm 切削深度 p : p 根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4 ? 39 查得:进给量 f ? 0.22 ~ 0.28mm/ r ,切削速度 V ? 0.36 m / s , 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000V 1000 ? 0.36 ? 60 n? ? ? 1147 r / min ?d 3.14 ? 6 ,取 n ? 1200 r / min
实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 44.9mm
V? ?

?Dn
1000

?

3.14 ? 6 ? 1200 ? 0.38m / s 1000 ? 60

D 6 l1 ? ctgk r ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg 120 ? ? 2 ? 11mm 2 2 刀具切入长度 l1 , 由式 (1.8) 有: 刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 1 ~ 4mm 取 l 2 ? 3mm

f ? 0.22 ~ 0.28mm/ r ,取 f ? 0.25m m/ r

加工基本时间 Tj ,由式(1.5)有: 6 螺孔 ⑵.钻 M  a a ? 2.6mm 切削深度 p : p 进给量 f :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-39,

Tj ?

L ? l1 ? l 2 44.9 ? 11? 3 ? ? 0.22 min f ?n 0.22 ? 1200

切削速度 V : 参照参考文献[7] 《机械加工工艺手册》 表 2.4-41, 取 V ? 0.36 m / s 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 0.36 ? 60 n? ? ? 1322r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 5.2 ,取 n ? 1300 r / min
1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 17 mm D 5.2 l1 ? ctgk r ? (1 ~ 2) ? ctg 120 ? ? 2 ? 1.5mm l 2 2 刀具切入长度 1 , 由式 (1.8) 有: V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 5.2 ? 1300 ? 0.35m / s 1000? 60

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

刀具切出长度 l 2 : l 2 ? 0 走刀次数为 1 机动时间 ,由式(1.5)有: ③、攻 M 6 螺纹孔

tj

tj ?

l ? l1 ? l 2 17 ? 1.5 ? ? 0.06 min fn 0.25? 1300

机床:组合攻丝机 刀具:高速钢机动丝锥 进给量 f :由于其螺距 p ? 1m m,因此进给量 f ? 1m m/ r 切削速度 V :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.4-105,取 V ? 0.115 m / s ? 6.9m / min 机床主轴转速 n ,由式(1.1)有: 1000 V 1000? 6.9 n? ? ? 366.24r / min ?d 0 3.14 ? 6 ,取 n ? 350 r / min 丝锥回转转速 n0 :取 nn ? 350r / min
1000 实际切削速度 V ? ,由式(1.2)有: 被切削层长度 l : l ? 25mm 刀具切入长度 l1 : l1 ? (1 ~ 3) f ? 3 ?1 ? 3mm V? ?

?d 0 n

?

3.14 ? 6 ? 350 ? 0.109m / s 1000? 60

刀具切出长度 l 2 : l2 ? (2 ~ 3) f ? 3 ?1 ? 3mm 走刀次数为 1 t 机动时间 j ,由式(1.5)有: l ? l1 ? l 2 l ? l1 ? l 2 25 ? 3 ? 3 25 ? 3 ? 3 tj ? ? ? ? ? 0.08min fn fn0 1? 350 1? 350 t 钻顶面四孔的机动时间 j : t j ? 0.87 ? 0.5 ? 0.76 ? 0.7 ? 0.03 ? 0.22 ? 0.06 ? 0.08 ? 3.22min

t t ? 0.59 ? 7 ? 3.22 ? 10.81min 这些工序的加工机动时间的总和是 j : j

1.9 时间定额计算及生产安排
根据设计任务要求, 该 CA6140 机床后托架的年产量为 5000 件。 一年以 240 个工作日计算,每天的产量应不低于 21 件。设每天的产量为 21 件。再以每天 8 小时工作时间计算,则每个工件的生产时间应不大于 22.8min。 参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-2,机械加工单件(生产类型: 中批以上)时间定额的计算公式为: t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? t zz / N (大量生产时 t zz / N ? 0 ) 式 (1.10) 因此在大批量生产时单件时间定额计算公式为: t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) 式 (1.11)

其中: t d —单件时间定额 —基本时间(机动时间) tf —辅助时间。用于某工序加工每个工件时都要进行的各种辅助动 作所消耗的时间,包括装卸工件时间和有关工步辅助时间
Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

tj

CA6140 机床后托架加工工艺

k —布置工作地、休息和生理需要时间占操作时间的百分比值

1.9.1 粗、精铣底面
t ? 0.26 ? 0.33 ? 0.59min t 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-45,取工步辅助 时间为 0.41 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 1 min 。则 t f ? 0.41? 1 ? 1.41min k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-48, k ? 13 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有:

t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (0.59 ? 1.41)(1 ? 13%) ? 2.26min ? 22.8 min
因此应布置一台机床即可以完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求。

1.9.2 镗侧面三杠孔
0.03 0.02 0.025 ⑴、粗镗侧面的三孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 , ? 400 ) t t ? 0.66 ? 0.62 ? 0.56 ? 1.84min 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-37,取工步辅助 时间为 0.81 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 3 min 。则 t f ? 0.81? 3 ? 3.81min k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-39, k ? 14.83 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有:

t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (1.84 ? 3.81)(1 ? 14.83%) ? 6.48min ? 22.8 min
因此应布置一台机床即可以完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求。 0.03 0.02 0.025 ⑵、半精镗侧面的三孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 , ? 400 )
t ? 0.77 ? 0.77 ? 0.8 ? 2.34min t 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-37,取工步辅助 时间为 0.81 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 3 min 。则 t f ? 0.81? 3 ? 3.81min k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-39, k ? 14.83 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有: t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (2.34 ? 3.81)(1 ? 14.83%) ? 7.06min ? 22.8 min

因此应布置一台机床即可以完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求。 0.03 0.02 0.025 ⑶、精镗侧面的三孔( ? 25.50 , ? 300 , ? 400 )

t ? 0.96 ? 0.9 ? 0.96 ? 2.82min t 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-37,取工步辅助 时间为 0.81 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 3 min 。则 t f ? 0.81? 3 ? 3.81min

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-39, k ? 14.83

单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有: t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (2.82 ? 3.81)(1 ? 14.83%) ? 7.61min ? 22.8 min 因此应布置一台机床即可以完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求。

1.9.3 钻顶面四孔

钻顶面四孔(其中包括钻 2 ? ?13 和 2 ? ?10 、扩钻 2 ? ?13 ,铰孔 2 ? ?10 以及 锪孔 2 ? ? 20 和 2 ? ?13 )

t t ? 0.87 ? 0.5 ? 0.76 ? 0.7 ? 0.03 ? 2.86min 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-41,取工步辅助 时间为 1.775 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 1 min 。则 t f ? 1.775? 1 ? 1.775min k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-43, k ? 12.14 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有:
t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (2.86 ? 1.775)(1 ? 12.14%) ? 5.2 min ? 22.8 min
因此应布置一台机床即可完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求 钻左侧面两孔(其中包括钻 ? 6 的孔和 M 6 的螺孔)

t t ? 0.22 ? 0.06 ? 0.28min 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-41,取工步辅助 时间为 1.775 min 。由于在生产线上装卸工件时间很短,所以取装卸工件时间为 1 min 。则 t f ? 1.775? 1 ? 1.775min k :根据参考文献[7]《机械加工工艺手册》表 2.5-43, k ? 12.14 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有:
t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (0.28 ? 1.775)(1 ? 12.14%) ? 2.3 min ? 22.8 min
因此应布置一台机床即可完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求 M 6 的螺纹孔攻丝 t ? 0.08min t 机动时间 j : j t 辅助时间 f :参照钻孔辅助时间,取装卸工件辅助时间为 1.775 min ,工步 t ? 1.775? 1 ? 2.775min 辅助时间为 1 min 。则 f k :参照钻孔 k 值,取 k ? 12.14 单间时间定额 t d ,由式(1.11)有:

t d ? (t j ? t f )(1 ? k %) ? (0.08 ? 2.775)(1 ? 12.14%) ? 4.01min ? 22.8 min
因此布置一台机床即可完成本工序的加工,达到生产要求。

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

专用夹具设计

2

专用夹具设计

为了提高劳动生产率,保证加工质量,降低劳动强度。在加工 CA6140 机床 后托架零件时,需要设计专用夹具。 根据任务要求中的设计内容,需要设计加工工艺孔夹具及铣底面夹具一套。 其中加工侧面的三孔的夹具将用于 X 52 K 卧式镗床, 而顶面的四孔用到的刀具分 别为两把麻花钻、扩孔钻、铰刀以及锪钻进行加工,侧面两个孔将用两把麻花钻 对起进行加工。

2.1 铣*面夹具设计
2.1.1 研究原始质料
利用本夹具主要用来粗铣底*面,该底*面对孔 ? 40 、? 30.2 、? 25.5 的中心 线要满足尺寸要求以及*行度要求。在粗铣此底*面时,其他都是未加工表面。 为了保证技术要求,最关键是找到定位基准。同时,应考虑如何提高劳动生产率 和降低劳动强度。

2.1.2 定位基准的选择

由零件图可知:粗铣*面对孔 ? 40 、? 30.2 、? 25.5 的中心线和轴线有尺寸要 求及*行度要求, 其设计基准为孔的中心线。为了使定位误差达到要求的范围之 内,在此选用 V 形块定心自动找到中心线,这种定位在结构上简单易操作。 采用 V 形块定心*面定位的方式,保证*面加工的技术要求。同时,应加一 ? 侧面定位支承来限制一个沿 Y 轴移动的自由度。

2.1.3 切削力及夹紧分析计算
刀具材料: W18 Cr 4V (高速钢端面铣刀) 0 0 刀 具 有 关 几 何 参 数 : ? 0 ? 10 ~ 15

? 0 ? 80 ~ 120

? n ? 50 ~ 80

D ? 63mm Z ? 8 a f ? 0.25mm/ z a p ? 2.0mm 由参考文献[16]《机床夹具设计手册》表 1-2-9 可得铣削切削力的计算公 式:

? ? 150 ~ 250

.1 0.72 FC ? C p a1 D?1.1 B 0.9 zK P p fz

式 (2.1)

查参考文献[16]《机床夹具设计手册》表 1 ? 2 ? 10 得: HB 0.55 Kp ? ( ) 190 对于灰铸铁:

C p ? 294
式 (2.2)

K ? 0.96 取 HB ? 175 , 即 p 1.1 0.72 ?1.1 0.9 所以 FC ? 294? 2.0 ? 0.25 ? 63 ? 60 ? 8 ? 0.96 ? 640.69( N )
由参考文献[17]《金属切削刀具》表 1-2 可得: 垂直切削力 : FCN ? 0.9FC ? 576.62( N ) (对称铣削) 式(2.3)

背向力: FP ? 0.55FC ? 352.38( N ) 根据工件受力切削力、 夹紧力的作用情况,找出在加工过程中对夹紧最不利 的瞬间状态,按静力*衡原理计算出理论夹紧力。最后为保证夹紧可靠,再乘以 安全系数作为实际所需夹紧力的数值。即:

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s chool fire safety systems to enha nce fire safety, protecti on of public pr operty a nd the life and property safety of teachers a nd st ude nts, s chool fire safety into da y-to-day management, is developi ng the following fire safety system. 1, strengt hen fire safety education of the w hol e school. Accor ding to the requirements of the Fire Service s Act, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire control safety, protecti ng fire contr ol facilities , fire prevention, reports of fire

WK ? K ? F
安全系数 K 可按下式计算: K ? K 0 K1 K 2 K 3 K 4 K 5 K 6

式 (2.4) 式 (2.5)

式中: K 0 ~ K 6 为各种因素的安全系数,见《机床夹具设计手册》表 1 ? 2 ? 1 K ? 1.2 ? 1.2 ? 1.0 ? 1.2 ? 1.3 ? 1.0 ? 1.0 ? 2.25 可得: .55( N ) 所以 WK ? K ? FC ? 640.69? 2.25 ? 1441 式 (2.6)

WK ? K ? FCN ? 576.72? 2.25 ? 1297 .62( N )
WK ? K ? FP ? 352.38? 2.25 ? 792.86( N )

式(2.7)

式 (2.8) 由计算可知所需实际夹紧力不是很大,为了使其夹具结构简单、操作方便, 决定选用手动螺旋夹紧机构。 单个螺旋夹紧时产生的夹紧力按以下公式计算: W0 ? QL ? ? tg?1 ? ? z tg (? ? ? 2 ) 式 (2.9) 式中参数由参考文献[16]《机床夹具设计手册》可查得: ? ? ? ? 0 ? ? 2?19? ? 2 ? 9 ? 50? Q ? 25( N ) 其中: L ? 60(m m)

.08( N ) 螺旋夹紧力: W0 ? 1923 易得: W0 ? WK
经过比较实际夹紧力远远大于要求的夹紧力, 因此采用该夹紧机构工作是可 靠的。

2.1.4 误差分析与计算
该夹具以*面定位 V 形块定心,V 形块定心元件中心线与*面规定的尺寸公 差为 37 ? 0.07 。 为了满足工序的加工要求,必须使工序中误差总和等于或小于该 工序所规定的工序公差。 ? j ? ?w ? ? g

? 与机床夹具有关的加工误差 j ,一般可用下式表示: ? j ? ?W ?Z ? ? D? A ? ? D?W ? ? j? j ? ? j?M
由参考文献[16]《机床夹具设计手册》可得: ⑴、*面定位 V 形块定心的定位误差 : ? D?W ? 0

式(2.10)

? ? ( ymax ? ymin ) cos? ⑵、夹紧误差 : j? j 其中接触变形位移值: k N ? y ? (k RaZ RaZ ? HB ? c1 )( Z ) n ? 0.004m m HB 19.62l
? j? j ? ? y cos? ? 0.0036 mm
通常不超过 0.005 mm ⑷、夹具相对刀具位置误差: ? D? A 取 0.01mm ⑶、磨损造成的加工误差: 误差总和:

式(2.11)

式 (2.12)

? j ?M

? j ? ? w ? 0.0522 mm ? 0.07mm

Electricity li nes, e qui pment inspe ctions, found hi dde n in time for rectificati on, mai ntena nce , and security. 9, do not use a n open flame in t he cla ssroom, pr ohi bit burning stove, lit ca ndles, mosquito repellent, no sm oking, and banning mes sy wiring. Wit hout usi ng any househ old appliances is not a llowed. 10, live on cam pus fa culty members , must lead by example, a nd e ducate families and childre n ready to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas i n schools, to master proper us age, pay attenti on to the leak-proof, expl osion-proof, fireproof, closing valve after us e to ensure s ecurity. 1 2, di ning room must be qualifie d, and annual testi ng of pres sure ves sels, t o regularly che ck, the cantee n worker s must be certified, stri ctly by operation operation, gas tank a nd st ove safety distance of 1. 5 meters, to pr event accidents. 1 3, the a dverse conse que nce s ca used by ignoring fire safety regulations, w ill be puni she d, unti l investigate d for legal responsibi lity. Song Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool March 2016 Xiang 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 Liu Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety manageme nt system 1 tea chers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool gov erna nce covers pers onal a nd food hygiene , cultural eve nts and ot her as pects , integrated gov erna nce shall obtai n wide support and full cooperation of the community. On the surrounding e nvironment in schools s hould be cl ose ly monit ored. 2 , school w ork at the same t ime, shoul d pay attenti on to t he safety manageme nt of s chool e nvironme nt, s hould take the initiative to contact the distri ct police station, t he village Committee, Corre ctiona l Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busines s manageme nt and other de partments to do a good j ob manag ement. 3, tea cher on duty with the excepti on of ins pecti ons in s chool s, s hould al so pay attention to envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from rural are a s, for example, harassment of students a nd a variet y of accide nts, accor ding t o different situati ons reported s chool officials or the police station i n a timely manner, to prote ct the safety of stude nts. 4, every day before school, teachers remind student s, pay attenti on to traffic safety. 5, shoul d educate stud ents to re spe ct s ocial et hics, and various regulati ons, maintai ning publi c or der, a nd fight t he ba d guys , and grasp the corre ct ways and means of maintaini ng and improvi ng student s ' self-car e abilit y. 6, t he establishme nt of emergency rescue teams of teachers in s chool s, on hig h alert and de ploye d. Song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 201 6 song Li n Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng primary s chool tea chers and student s organi zations out of safety management sy stem organizati on a ctivities betwee n teach ers and student s, to dra w up a precise plan a nd s ecurity measures m ust be signe d by the school official s to review the programme of a ctivities agree d upon Corre ctional Ce nter agreed t o imple ment. Organiz ation t o the fiel d relatively far or activities re quir e approval by the De puty Dire ctor of the E ducation Burea u in charge of se curit y. 2, ea ch a ctivity shoul d have a s pecific responsibility, pay attenti on to t he per sons age, physical match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field s urveys s hould be carrie d out i n adva nce. 4, activities for t he means of transport shoul d explai n the s ituation to the school to compl y with vehicl e, safety requi r ements, before the li ne for repairs . 5, each activity must have se curit y, emergency response pla n for accide nts. 6, picnics, hiki ng, pi cni c to pay attenti on to fire preve ntion, food poisoning , preventi on of fall accidents 7, t he activitie s near the rivers, reserv oirs, no measure s or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let stude nts into t he water

专用夹具设计

从以上的分析可见,所设计的夹具能满足零件的加工精度要求。

2.1.5 夹具设计及操作的简要说明
如前所述,应该注意提高生产率,但该夹具设计采用了手动夹紧方式,在夹 紧和松开工件时比较费时费力。由于该工件体积小,工件材料易切削,切削力不 大等特点。经过方案的认真分析和比较,选用了手动夹紧方式(螺旋夹紧机构) 。 这类夹紧机构结构简单、夹紧可靠、通用性大,在机床夹具中很广泛的应用。 此外,当夹具有制造误差,工作过程出现磨损,以及零件尺寸变化时,影响 定位、夹紧的可靠。为防止此现象,支承钉和 V 形块采用可调节环节。以便随时 根据情况进行调整。

2.2 镗孔夹具设计
2.2.1 研究原始质料
利用本夹具主要用来镗加工孔 ? 40 、? 30.2 、? 25.5 。加工时除了要满足粗糙 度要求外,还应满足孔轴线对底*面的*行度公差要求。为了保证技术要求,最 关键是找到定位基准。同时,应考虑如何提高劳动生产率和降低劳动强度。

2.2.2 定位基准的选择

由零件图可知:孔 ? 40 、 ? 30.2 、 ? 25.5 的轴线与底*面有*行度公差要求, 在对孔进行加工前,底*面进行了粗铣加工。因此,选底*面为定位精基准(设 计基准)来满足*行度公差要求。 孔 ? 40 、? 30.2 、? 25.5 的轴线间有位置公差,选择左侧面为定位基准来设计 镗模, 从而满足孔轴线间的位置公差要求。工件定位用底*面和两个侧面来限制 六个自由度。

2.2.3 切削力及夹紧力的计算
镗刀材料: YT 5 (硬质合金镗刀) K ? 60? K?精 ? 90? ? ? ? 10? ?s ? 0? 刀具的几何参数: ?粗 由参考文献[16]《机床夹具设计手册》查表 1 ? 2 ? 3 可得: F ? 902a p f 0.75 K P 圆周切削分力公式: C a ? 1.8mm f ? 0.4m m/ r 式中 p

? ? ? 80?
式(2.13)

K p ? K mp K k?p K?op K ?sp K rp
查表 1 ? 2 ? 4 得:
K mp ? ( HB n ) 150

式(2.14) 取 HB ? 175 ? 0.94 K?op ? 1.0
0.9

n ? 0 .4

由表 1 ? 2 ? 6 可得参数: 即: FC ? 766.15( N )

K k?p

K ?sp ? 1.0 K rp ? 1.0

F ? 530a p f 0.75 K P 同理:径向切削分力公式 : P K ? 0.77 K?op ? 1.0 K ?sp ? 1.0 K rp ? 1.0 式中参数: k?p 即: FP ? 347.71( N )
F ? 451 a p f 0.4 K P 轴向切削分力公式 : f K ? 1.11 K?op ? 1.0 K ?sp ? 1.0 式中参数: k?p
K rp ? 1.0

式(2.15)

式(2.16)

In order to e nsure normal tea chi ng or der, protecti ng student s ' healt hy growth, ens uring t hat nati onal (pr operty) is not lost, to preve nt or minimiz e the occurre nce of safety acci dent s, follow t he "preve nt, rescue ea ch othe r, ensure safety and re duce losses" pri nci ple, a ccordi ng to the l oca l conditi ons, make t he manageme nt system. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he res ponsi bility of s chool safety, school se curity under the lea ders hip of Presi dent s ecurity w ork lea ding group. The head tea cher to the l eaders hip team i s responsibl e for, impl ementation of the a ccountability system. 2, s chool monthly st udent knowle dge about s afety education, education s hould be diver sified in t he form every safety educati on for st ude nts of cla sse s per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ssue s de aling wit h educati on i n Ge neral, self -hel p and mutual re scue knowle dge. Emergency call s (such as 110, 119, 122 , 120, and so on) use common sense in e ducation. 3, t he establishme nt of major a cci dent re porti ng system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of education; st udent run a nd disa ppeara nce s to re port; re port of the a cci dent t o a writte n report in tri plicate, a correcti onal ce ntre, a poli ce station, a t ownshi p pe opl e's G overnme nt shall not conceal the accide nt. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, esta blish and improve the lea ders hip val ues ; strengt hen t he e ducation, manageme nt of teaching activities in s chool s to e ns ure normal teaching order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leader shi p always mai ntaine d cl ose contact a nd distri ct police stations, ca nvassi ng s upport from the police station on school safety a nd help. 5, stre ngthe ning tea chers ' moral e ducation, esta blis h a de dicate d lov e, improvi ng e ducati on quality, obs erve the students ' psy chological change s at any time a nd take preventive measure s, no corporal puni shme nt and covert corporal punis hment on stude nts, st ude nt out of the clas sroom, schools may not be. 6 , units or de partments use st udent Street pr opaga nda or participate i n the cel ebrations, a s well a s participating i n ot her s ocial work, without approval of the Correcti onal Centre , school pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Without the approval of releva nt de partments, may organize students to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, schools s hould educate st ude nts to obey t he s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home t o preve nt accide nts. 8, s chool to school inspe ctions on a reg ular basis, found hi dden i n time, and in severe cases , it is hard to eliminate immediately closed, and reported to t he local people's Government, e ducati on, and rule of law se ction. 9, the s chool shoul d always check the inter nal walls , retaini ng walls, ponds, raili ngs, handrails, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variety of s ports , extracurri cular a ctivities, fa cilities such as fire safety, infrastructure security, unsafe facility to immedia tely r epair and dem olition to e ns ure that tea chers and students work, le arn, live ve nues and facilitie s are safe a nd reliable. S ong Li n Xi ang Li u Jia pi ng elementary s chool M arch 2 016 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia pi ng primary s



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